Worm infestation belongs to a common group of diseases between humans and animals. It is caused by the penetration into the body of various worms, of which in our time there are more than three hundred species. The parasites are localized mainly in the intestines and liver, but some species are able to penetrate the lungs, heart, brain and other vital organs, which can lead to very serious consequences. It is important to detect the presence of helminths in the body as soon as possible and take measures to eliminate them in order to avoid health problems. After all, this disease can have many consequences, up to death. But it is quite difficult to determine the presence of helminth infestation in the body, as the symptoms are similar to other diseases and it is difficult to say exactly which infection is attacking the body. It is important to understand what to look for when contacting a parasitologist.
Types of helminths dangerous to humans
Worms that pose a danger to humans are divided into two groups:
- Caviar - breast worms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms and other parasites that live in the intestines.
- India - echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis and other types of parasites that can spread to all important internal organs and affect them.
Most often, the following types of helminthic infestations are diagnosed in the human body: enterobiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis.
Methods of worm infection
There are many ways in which parasite larvae enter the body, among them the main ones can be distinguished:
- Contact - larvae are transmitted from person to person.
- Through insect bites.
- Through the earth
- Through water.
- With dust particles.
- From food that has undergone insufficient heat treatment.
The first appearances of worms in the body
Once in the human body, worms do not appear immediately. This is the main problem. The first signs of helminthic infestation may appear only after two weeks. This includes:
- increase in body temperature;
- skin rash;
- painful abdominal pain;
- loss of appetite;
- the appearance of a headache;
- intestinal breakdown.
If, feeling the first signs, in time to consult a doctor, many problems can be avoided.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the human body
Being in the body, parasites eat most of the nutrients and vitamins, which significantly affects well-being.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in adults:
- the presence of allergies;
- the appearance of acne and pimples;
- annoying cough;
- reduced immunity;
- depressed and nervous state;
- joint pain;
- disorders of the digestive system.
Symptoms of lung worm infection
Lung infection with helminths can be asymptomatic for several years. After penetrating the human body, parasites actively multiply, when a significant amount is reached, symptoms such as:
- weakness and lack of strength;
- wet cough;
- pain and discomfort in the chest area;
- nausea and vomiting;
- decreased appetite and weight loss.
In places where parasites enter the lungs, adhesions form and over time, the shape of the lungs changes. Parasites provoke diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and pleurisy. In an advanced case, a fatal outcome is likely.
The main signs of intestinal helminthiasis
Most often, the habitat of worms in the human body are the intestines. The first symptoms appear when helminths begin active reproduction:
- lack of strength and fatigue;
- itching in the anus;
- dermatitis and eczema on the skin.
Parasites poison the body with the products of their vital activity and all this leads to a general state of weakness and apathy.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the stomach
This place is also preferred for worms, the symptoms are as follows:
- frequent indigestion, constipation may suddenly turn into diarrhea;
- stomach and umbilical cord pain;
- decreased appetite;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- gnashing of teeth;
Signs of Dirofilaria Infection
This type of parasite appears in humans due to insect bites. There are two forms of dirofilariasis - ocular and cutaneous:
- The skin form is more common and can be manifested by mosquito bites, in this place a small seal forms and gradually migrates under the skin causing discomfort. If you do not seek qualified help in a timely manner, severe redness and pain appear at the site of the lesion.
- In the ocular form, the parasite lives under the skin of the eyelids and there is the possibility of its penetration into the occiput of the eye. Symptoms are redness and swelling, conjunctivitis and an itchy feeling in the affected area, in addition, the person constantly feels a foreign body in the eye. All this is accompanied by insomnia, increased nervousness and general weakness.
Symptoms of helminths in the throat
The throat is one of the most sensitive places in the human body. When it becomes inflamed, we immediately feel pain and discomfort, but sometimes you can feel a strong tickling and tingling in the throat, which is often caused by helminths. It is worth noting that parasites can not live in the throat, as this is not a favorable habitat for them. It happens that the parasites that develop in the digestive system grow to such a size that through the esophagus they enter the throat, this is usually accompanied by suffocation and strong cough.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion of the brain
Brain damage usually occurs through the nasal passages. When they enter the brain, helminths infect the cortical center, destroy brain cells, and actively multiply. Instead of dead cells, dead tissue remains, leading to inflammatory processes in the brain. If the patient is not provided with urgent medical care, he may die within two weeks.
- severe headache;
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in human blood
Blood is the habitat of some species of helminths, which have a very harmful effect on the body. Symptoms include:
- temperature periods;
- joint pain;
- numbness of the limbs;
- lymph node enlargement.
How to recognize helminthic invasion by skin rashes
One of the main manifestations of the presence of helminths is a strong deterioration of the skin condition and the appearance of various rashes on it. This is due to toxic substances released by parasites. The most characteristic signs are as follows:
- severe itching;
- allergic rhinitis;
- the appearance of papillomas;
- brittle nails;
- increased hair loss;
- acne and furunculosis.
But you do not have to attribute all the manifestations of the skin to the presence of worms in the body, the reasons may be different and only a dermatologist, after conducting research, will be able to determine them.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in the form of metabolic disorders
Failures in metabolic processes in the body should also be alarming. If, with a normal diet, there has been a sharp decrease or increase in weight, anemia or hypovitaminosis has been detected, parasitic infection should be considered. Rapid weight loss may be due to the fact that worms absorb all the nutrients consumed by a person. Weight gain can be provoked by toxic substances secreted by helminths, in response to which the body requires more food to remove toxins with it.
Symptoms from the immune system
Since parasites eat all the nutrients and vitamins that enter the body, there is a strong suppression of the immune system and the person becomes susceptible to all infectious diseases and inflammatory processes of various organs. Chronic diseases are also on the rise.
On the part of the nervous system, helminthic invasion is expressed by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment;
- depressive condition;
- decrease in activity and performance.
Signs of infection in children
Note! In children, the presence of worms and ascaris is most often diagnosed.
Worm infection in children has the following symptoms:
- poor appetite;
- pale facial skin;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- poor sleep, gnashing of teeth in a dream;
- headache, dizziness;
- general state of lethargy and weakness;
- the presence of worms in the child's stool;
- itching in the anus;
- a large amount of saliva in the mouth;
- lethargy and fatigue;
- an increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- allergic reactions, dermatitis, urticaria;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals;
- Bad breath;
- annoying cough;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent colds.
Advice! If a child has three or more signs, you should immediately consult a doctor. Often, even a stool study does not give accurate results, so it will be more effective to undergo a comprehensive examination.
It is important to understand that a small number of adult helminths on the body gives almost no symptoms of helminth infestation in adults and children. It is possible to confirm or deny the infection only by passing laboratory tests and studies prescribed by a parasitologist on an individual basis.
Diagnosis of helminthiasis
Since it is possible to treat the body from parasites only after they are detected and the symptoms of the infection are similar to those of other diseases, a competent diagnosis is important. Its methods include:
- Serological analysis - detection of helminth antibodies in the blood;
- Fecal analysis - helps identify the presence of larvae and adult fragments;
- Coprological examination - the study of scraping, which is taken near the anus;
- Check for dysbacteriosis;
- CT scan;
It is easy to get infected with worms, but it is difficult to treat, especially chronic forms of helminthic infestation. The course of treatment includes antiparasitic drugs, immunomodulators and sorbents. The therapy regimen is prescribed only by a doctor, self-medication can be not only useless but also dangerous.
Preventive measures against infection with helminths
Prevention of helminth infestations is extremely important for children and adults, by following a few rules, you can significantly reduce the chances of parasite infection. The presence of helminth infestation in humans, as a rule, is due to lack of basic hygiene:
- be sure to wash your hands before each use of food, when returning home from the street, after contact with animals;
- well, preferably using special products, wash fruits and vegetables before eating or scalding with boiling water;
- drink only purified or boiled water;
- try to avoid insect bites;
- fish, meat and other similar products undergo complete thermal treatment;
- make sure the baby's nails are trimmed;
- periodically wash children's toys using special products;
- make sure to boil the items the patient has used for five minutes;
- twice a year to undergo an examination of a child and an adult for the presence of helminths;
- to remove the baby from the breast to take hands and other objects in the mouth, especially those that have had contact with the ground.
Implementing these measures is not very difficult. Adhering to them will be enough to protect yourself and your children as much as possible from parasites. If something was missing and symptoms of helminthic invasion began to appear, treatment should be started immediately to prevent complications.